Below is an article about the Polish dish known as Bigos:
When one mentions hunter's stew, dishes such as Burgoo, or Bruinswick Stew usually comes to mind. But there is one hunter's stew that dates back even further. I am referring to Bigos, which is a dish that originated in the Eastern European countries of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and the Ukraine.
The dish dates back to the medieval era and can trace its roots to fourteenth century Poland. The ironic thing is that the dish's originator was not Polish. In fact, his name was Jogaila, a Lithuanian Grand Duke who became the Polish king Władysław Jagiełło in 1385. He had created the dish - namely a hunter's stew - for his guests at a hunting party, after he had ascended the Polish throne. The name "bigos" allegedly means "confusion", "big mess" or "trouble" in Polish. However, Polish linguists trace the word "bigos" to a German origin. The PWN Dictionary of Foreign Words speculates that it derives from the past participle begossen of a German verb that means "to douse". And Bigos was usually doused with wine in earlier years.
Bigos usually consists of white cabbage, sauerkraut, various cuts of meat, tomatoes, honey and mushrooms. For those who do not eat meat or do not have any available, Bigos can be prepared without it. And it can be prepared without the white cabbage. But sauerkraut is absolutely essential. The type of meat found in Bigos can be smoked pork, ham, bacon, sausage, veal and beef. However, since Bigos is a hunter's stew, meats such as venison, rabbit or other game can usually be found, as well. The stew is usually seasoned with pepper, caraway, bay leaf, marjoram, dried or smoked plums, pimenta, juniper berries and red wine. Bigos is usually served with mashed potatoes or rye bread.
1 ounce dried porcini or other wild mushrooms 2 Tbsp bacon fat or vegetable oil 2 pounds pork shoulder 1 large onion, chopped 1 head cabbage (regular, not savoy or red), chopped 1 1/2 pounds mixed fresh mushrooms 1-2 pounds kielbasa or other smoked sausage 1 smoked ham hock 1 pound fresh Polish sausage (optional) 1 25-ounce jar of fresh sauerkraut (we recommend Bubbies, which you may be able to find in the refrigerated section of your local supermarket) 1 bottle of pilsner or lager beer 1 Tbsp juniper berries (optional) 1 Tbsp black peppercorns 1 Tbsp caraway seeds 2 Tbsp dried marjoram Salt 20 prunes, sliced in half (optional) 2 Tbsp tomato paste (optional) 1 15-ounce can tomato sauce (optional) 1-2 Tbsp mustard or horseradish (optional)
Pour hot tap water over the dried mushrooms and submerge them for 20-40 minutes, or until soft. Grind or crush the juniper berries and black peppercorns roughly; you don’t want a powder. Cut the pork shoulder into large chunks, about 2 inches. Cut the sausages into similar-sized chunks. Drain the sauerkraut and set aside. Clean off any dirt from the mushrooms and cut them into large pieces; leave small ones whole.
Heat the bacon fat or vegetable oil in a large lidded pot for a minute or two. Working in batches if necessary, brown the pork shoulder over medium-high heat. Do not crowd the pan. Set the browned meat aside.
Put the onion and fresh cabbage into the pot and sauté for a few minutes, stirring often, until the cabbage is soft. Sprinkle a little salt over them. The vegetables will give off plenty of water, and when they do, use a wooden spoon to scrape any browned bits off the bottom of the pot. If you are making the tomato-based version, add the tomato paste here. Once the pot is clean and the cabbage and onions soft, remove from the pot and set aside with the pork shoulder.
Add the mushrooms and cook them without any additional oil, stirring often, until they release their water. Once they do, sprinkle a little salt on the mushrooms. When the water is nearly all gone, add back the pork shoulder, the cabbage-and-onion mixture, and then everything else except the prunes. Add the beer, if using, or the tomato sauce if you're making the tomato-based version. Stir well to combine.
You should not have enough liquid to submerge everything. That’s good: Bigos is a “dry” stew, and besides, the ingredients will give off more liquid as they cook. Bring everything to a simmer, cover the pot and cook gently for at least 2 hours.
Bigos is better the longer it cooks, but you can eat it once the ham hock falls apart. Check at 2 hours, and then every 30 minutes after that. When the hock is tender, fish it out and pull off the meat and fat from the bones Discard the bones and the fat, then chop the meat roughly and return to the pot. Add the prunes and cook until they are tender, at least 30 more minutes.
Bigos is best served simply, with rye bread and a beer. If you want a little kick, add the mustard or horseradish right before you eat it. Bigos improves with age, too, which is why this recipe makes so much: Your leftovers will be even better than the stew was on the first day.