Wednesday, August 27, 2014
TIME MACHINE: BATTLE OF BLADENSBURG
Today marks the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Bladensburg, which was a major conflict fought during the War of 1812. The battle was fought on August 24, 1814 in Bladensburg, Maryland; and played a major role in the fate of the United States' capital, Washington D.C. and a future battle fought around Baltimore, Maryland.
Although the Royal Navy had controlled the Chesapeake Bay region since early 1813, the lack of substantial British troops due to the Napoleonic Wars had limited to mounting small-scale raids. However, Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by April 1814, leaving the British Army to focus full attention to the war on the North American continent. Major General Robert Ross, assumed command of veterans from the Duke of Wellington's army and other British troops serving along the East Coast. They were transported to Chesapeake Bay to create a diversion from a British invasion of New York, led by Lieutenant General Sir George Prevost, Governor General of Canada and commander in chief in North America. Although Ross commanded the troops, the point of attack was to be decided by Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane, Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Navy's North American Station.
When Ross and Cochrane's forces arrived at the town Benedict, along the Patuxent River, President James Madison sent Secretary of State James Monroe to reconnoiter. President Madison received a dispatch from Secretary Monroe on August 23 that stated - "The enemy are in full march to Washington, Have the materials prepared to destroy the bridges, PS – You had better remove the records." Unfortunately, Madison and his advisers ignored Monroe's warning and reports. The Washington and Baltimore area served as the Tenth Military District and it was under the command of General William H. Winder, who had been an attorney before the war broke out. In theory, Winder was supposed to have at least 15,000 militia troops, but he actually had only 120 Dragoons and 300 other Regulars, plus 1,500 poorly trained and under-equipped militiamen at his immediate disposal. Secretary of War John Armstrong, Jr. and other advisers incorrectly assumed that the British were destined for Baltimore and that Washington would not be attacked since he deemed it strategically unimportant.
Winder ordered the destruction of the two bridges across the Anacostia River as a precaution to protect the Capital. This act left a route through Bladensburg as the logical approach. He also sent troops to Marlborough to intercept the British at Upper Marlboro on August 20. Unfortunately, those troops quickly returned when the Americans learned that British troops were already entering Blandesburg. Following a brief clash with Ross' leading forces on August 22, Winder ordered a hasty retreat. Several Maryland militia regiments were summoned from Baltimore to defend Washington. Winder ordered Brigadier General Tobias Stansbury to move from Baltimore to Bladensburg and take the best position in advance of Bladensburg in order to resist as long as possible. The latter deployed his force atop Lowndes Hill, just east of Bladensburg. The road from Annapolis crossed the hill, and the road from Upper Marlboro ran to its south and west. Furthermore, the roads to Washington, Georgetown, and Baltimore all intersected behind between it and Bladensburg. From this position, Stansbury dominated the approaches available to the British while controlling the lines of communication. Then on August 23, Stansbury received a message from Winder, informing the former that he had withdrawn across the Eastern Branch and he intended to fire the lower bridge. A surprised Stansbury was seized by an irrational fear that his right flank could be turned. Instead of strengthening his commanding position, he immediately removed his exhausted troops and marched across Bladensburg bridge, which he did not burn. Stansbury ended up tossing away almost every tactical advantage available to him.
The British forces reached Bladensburg on August 24, around noon. Around noon on 24 August, Ross's army reached Bladensburg and Stansbury's tactical errors quickly became apparent. Had he continued to hold Lowndes Hill, Stansbury could have made the British approach a costly one. With the use of Bladensburg's brick structures, which were ready-made mini-fortresses, Stansbury might have drawn Ross's troops into bloody street fighting. Since Stansbury failed to burn the bridge, he was forced to defend it. Stansbury's infantry and artillery were posted too far from the river's edge to contest an effective crossing. The British sweep across the Bladensburg Bridge proved to be very strong. Although the Americans repulsed the British forces three times by artillery fire and launched a counter-attack led by U.S. Naval officer Commodore Joshua Barney and his almost 600 seasoned Marines and sailors. Despite their valiant repulse, the authorities in Washington simply forgot about Barney for several days. Without orders they were tardy arrivals on the field of contest. Had they been supplied with sufficient ammunition and supporting infantry, the course of the battle could have been changed. But in the end, Barney and his men were flanked and overwhelmed by British forces. Barney was wounded and captured.
Although the British had suffered heavier casualties than the Americans, thanks to Barney's guns; they had completely routed the defenders. The British are believed to suffer casualties of 64 dead and 185 wounded. Some of the British dead "died without sustaining a scratch. They collapsed from heat exhaustion and the strain of punishing forced marches over the five days since landing at Benedict. General Winder had not given any instructions to his commanders before the battle in regard to a possible retreat. When the American militia left the battlefield, he issued contradictory orders - either to halt and reform, fall back on the Capitol where Secretary of War Armstrong hoped vainly to make a stand using the Federal buildings as strong points, or retreat through Georgetown to Tenleytown. Most of the militia simply fled the field with no destination in mind, or deserted the ranks to see to the safety of their families. The Americans actually fled through the streets of Washington, D.C. President Madison and most of the rest of the federal government had been present at the battle, and had nearly been captured. They too fled the capital, and scattered through Maryland and Virginia. That same night the British entered Washington unopposed and set fire to many of the government buildings in what became known as the Burning of Washington.
If you are more interested in reading more information on the Battle of Bladensburg and the Burning of Washington, I suggest you read the following books:
*"When Britain Burned the White House: The 1814 Invasion of Washington (2014) by Peter Snow
*"The Darkest Day: The Washington-Baltimore Campaign During the War of 1812" (2003) by Charles G. Mueller
Friday, August 22, 2014
Below are images from "THE MIRROR CRACK'D", the 1980 adaptation of Agatha Christie's 1962 novel. Directed by Guy Hamilton, the movie starred Angela Landsbury as Miss Jane Marple:
"THE MIRROR CRACK'D" (1980) Photo Gallery
Wednesday, August 20, 2014
"BABYLON 5" RETROSPECT: (2.16) "In the Shadow of Z'ha'dum"
About eighteen months ago, I had posted a list of my favorite Season Two episodes from the 1993-1998 syndicate series,"BABYLON 5". And one of those episodes happened to be (2.16) "In the Shadow of Z'ha'dum". For the sake of sentiment, I recently re-watched the episode to see if my views on it had changed.
The series' second season - titled "The Coming of Shadows" - introduced a new character to the "BABYLON 5" universe. Captain John J. Sheridan first appeared in the season's premiere episode, (2.01) "Points of Departure" to replace Babylon 5's first commanding officer, Commander Jeffrey Sinclair. Like the latter, Captain Sheridan was a veteran of Earth Alliance's last major conflict, the Earth-Minbari War, which was fought over a decade before the series' setting. Sheridan was the only Earth military commander who scored a major victory over the Minbari, who possessed superior forces and weapons. Sheridan was also a married man, who became a widower following the death of his wife, Anna Sheridan. Two years earlier, Anna was killed while serving as a member of a planetary expedition aboard a ship called the Icarus for a mission to explore an obscure planet called Z'ha'dum.
The episode (2.02) "Revelations" dealt with Sheridan allegedly coming to terms with Anna's death. But the events of "In the Shadow of Z'ha'dum" proved otherwise. The story began with the arrival of a Human named Mr. Morden to Babylon 5. Following his first appearance in the Season One episode, (1.13) "Signs and Portents", Mr. Morden managed to form an alliance with Ambassador Londo Mollari of Centauri Prime. Using his connections with an ancient and powerful race of aliens known as "the Shadows" - whose homeworld happened to be Z'ha'dum, Morden helped the Centauri deal with its main enemy, the Narns. During Morden's latest visit to Babylon 5, Security Chief Michael Garibaldi unintentionally identifies him as a regular visitor to the station during a private conversation with Sheridan. When the captain realizes that Morden had been a member of the Icarus expedition that led to Anna's death, he has the man arrested and placed in a holding cell. Sheridan becomes obsessed with learning about the details of Anna's fate; and also the details behind Morden's survival and failure to inform Earth Alliance. This obsession leads the good captain to break security rules, alienate members of command staff and attract the attention of the Centauri, Minbar and Vorlon ambassadors.
During my latest viewing of "In the Shadow of Z'ha'dum", I tried to pinpoint what I did not like about it. I managed to find one aspect that struck me as unappealing. Sheridan's manipulation of resident telepath Talia Winters' only meeting with Morden struck me as rather forced. David J. Eagle's direction and Christopher Franke's score tried a little too hard in making this scene dramatic by amping up the suspense. The scene's build up struck me as over-the-top that it almost overshadowed the pay-off of Talia and Morden's actual meeting. It is a flaw I have spotted in other "BABYLON 5" episodes - even in some of its best.
"In the Shadow of Z'ha'dum" may not have be perfect, but I believe it might be one of the best episodes of Season Two . . . and in the entire season. The ironic thing is that hardly any action occurred in this episode, aside from a well deserved slap that Sheridan received from Talia. And yet, "In the Shadow of Z'ha'dum not only helped drive the series' main narrative forward, it also foreshadowed two major story arcs in future episodes - Sheridan's conflict with the Shadows and Garabaldi's role as Babylon 5's security chief. It also foreshadowed a minor plot - namely Morden's future fate. These story lines are major examples of series creator J. Michael Straczynski's use of foreshadow in his writing. And as far as I am concerned, no one else did it better other than George Lucas for his "STAR WARS" movie franchise.
However, I believe the best thing about "In the Shadow of Z'ha'dum" was the development of the John Sheridan character. Many fans had not been pleased when Bruce Boxleitner replaced the late Michael O'Hare, who portrayed Jeffrey Sinclair, as the series' new leading man. They accused the Sheridan character of being lightweight and dubbed him with the nickname of "Captain Smiley". Personally, I never had any problems with Sheridan before this episode. But this is the first time the series ever focused upon the negative aspects of Sheridan's character. And I found it very interesting."Revelations" had revealed that Sheridan had yet to recover from his wife's death. "In the Shadow of Z'ha'dum" revealed that Sheridan's inability to recover from his grief brought out the worst of him - his temper, his penchant for brooding, his stubborness, his talent for manipulation and most importantly, his ruthlessness. Sheridan's reputation as "Captain Smiley" disappeared after this episode. For good.
The episode also featured a minor story line regarding the arrival of an Earth Alliance official named Pierce Macabee. The latter represented Earth Alliance's Ministry of Peace, which served as a security and propaganda machine for President Morgan Clark's administration. Macabee arrived at Babylon 5 to recruit the station's crew into Earth Alliance's new paramilitary organization, Nightwatch. These members were instructed to uncover and report on what they perceived to be "subversive" activities - namely open criticism and defiance of Clark's Administration. This story line was introduced in such a subtle manner that it almost seemed like afterthought. Almost. It allowed audiences to hear Macabee's speech about Nightwatch and watch him recruit some of the station's crew - including Zack Allen, who served with Babylon 5's security force under Garibaldi. Although Zack joined Nightwatch simply to earn extra credits, his decision will prove to have a major impact upon the series' main narrative, early in Season Three. The Nightwatch story arc proved to be another example of Straczynski's talent for using a minor story line as foreshadow. Very few writers and producers seemed capable of using this narrative device with any strong effect. Pity.
"In the Shadow of Z'ha'dum" also featured some first-rate performances. Regular cast members such as Claudia Christian, Mira Furlan, Jerry Doyle and Richard Biggs gave strong supportive performances. Although I was critical of the scene featuring Talia Winters' encounter with Mr. Morden, I certainly had no problems with Andrea Thompson's performance. The actress did an excellent job in conveying Talia's horror and later, outrage over Sheridan's actions. Jeff Conway really made the role of Zack Allen his own in this particular episode. I have always believed that one aspect that made a performer a first-rate screen actor or actress, is his or her ability to react to other characters. Conway was very effective in utilizing this acting tool in his scenes with Boxleitner and Doyle. And his performances in scenes with certain supporting characters struck me as effective and subtle at the same time. Especially in one scene in which Zack arrested Mr. Morden. I also have to commend Alex Hyde-White for his guest-starring turn as Nightwatch recruiter, Pierce Macabee. He did a superb job in projecting the Ministry of Peace's menace with such subtle charm.
Ed Wasser, who made such an impression as the quiet, yet menacing agent for the Shadows - Mr. Morden - in previous episodes, continued his excellent work in this episode. However, "In the Shadow of Z'ha'dum" also featured other dimensions to Morden's personality - fear, surprise and impatience - that Wasser conveyed with great skill. I especially enjoyed his work with both Stephen Furst and leading man Bruce Boxleitner. I have always been a fan of Furst since I first saw him in the 1978 comedy, "ANIMAL HOUSE". His time on NBC's "ST. ELSEWHERE" and "BABYLON 5" revealed his talent for dramatic acting. Furst effectively combined his skills for both drama and comedy in one particular in which Centauri Ambassador Aide Vir openly expressed his dislike for Morden. It is one of my favorite moments from the series.
Although the "Captain Smiley" nickname for the John Sheridan character disappeared after "In the Shadow of Z'ha'dum"first aired on television, Bruce Boxleitner's reputation as an actor suddenly gained momentum among the series' fans. I do not understand why. I have seen Boxleitner portray the darker aspects in previous roles very effectively. But I must say that I believe his performance in this episode may end up being regarded as one of his best. Boxleitner was superb as a ruthless Sheridan, obsessed with not only learning the truth about his wife's death, but also Morden's survival and revenge. It is a pity that the Emmys rarely acknowledge excellent acting or writing in the Science-Fiction/Fantasy genre.
"In the Shadow of Z'ha'dum" may not be my favorite Season Two episode from "BABYLON 5". But it is definitely my second favorite. And it is certainly one of my favorite episodes of the series. J. Michael Straczynski wrote an excellent episode about the consequences of grief for the series' main character. Thanks to fine writing, first-rate direction and excellent performances from a talented cast - especially series lead Bruce Boxleitner.
Tuesday, August 19, 2014
Below are images from "CONDUCT UNBECOMING", the 1975 adaptation of Barry England's 1969 stage play. Directed by Michael Anderson, the movie starred Michael York, Stacy Keach, Richard Attenborough and Christopher Plummer:
"CONDUCT UNBECOMING" (1975) Photo Gallery
Monday, August 18, 2014
Below are images from the 1946 crime drama, "THE BLUE DAHLIA". Written by Raymond Chandler and directed by George Marshall, the movie starred Alan Ladd, Veronica Lake and William Bendix:
"THE BLUE DAHLIA" (1946) Photo Gallery